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The forest

90 Minutes6-7 YearsFocus: Group Work

The Forest

Learning Objectives:

  • The students can define the term forest and recognize the importance of forests.
  • The students will be able to name various types of trees and plants found in forests.
  • The students understand the role of forests in providing habitats for animals and maintaining the ecosystem.
  • The students will learn and practice group work skills by working as a team to complete tasks.


Phase Time Content Form of action
Introduction 10 min Introducing the topic of forests Teacher-led presentation
Activity 1 30 min Small group activity: Exploring tree types Group work
Activity 2 35 min Group activity: Creating a forest diorama with animals and plants Group work
Conclusion/Reflection 15 min Sharing the group's findings and dioramas, discussing the importance of forests In plenary by teacher-student discussion


The planned lesson serves as an introduction to the teaching sequence "Our Natural World", in which students will explore various ecosystems and learn about their importance to our planet. In this lesson, the students will focus on the forest ecosystem and its unique features. They will also practice group work skills while engaging with their peers in a variety of activities. In the following lessons, they will explore other ecosystems, such as deserts, oceans, and grasslands, to further enrich their understanding of environmental diversity and conservation.

Needed Materials:

  1. Introduction Text: What is a Forest?

A forest is a large area covered with trees and plants, where many animals live and thrive. Forests are important because they provide oxygen, store carbon, and regulate the temperature of the Earth. They also protect the soil from erosion and are home to countless animal species. There are many types of forests, including tropical rainforests, temperate deciduous forests, and boreal forests or taigas. Forests are truly wonderful places teeming with life and natural beauty.

  1. Worksheet: Tree Types

Instructions: Research four common tree types found in forests (oak, maple, pine, and birch). Fill in the table below with the information you find.

Tree Type Leaf/Needle Description Seed Type Habitat (where it commonly grows) Interesting Fact

Sample Answers:

Tree Type Leaf/Needle Description Seed Type Habitat (where it commonly grows) Interesting Fact
Oak Broad, lobed leaves Acorns Temperate climates Oaks can live up to 200 years
Maple Broad, palmate leaves Samaras (helicopter seeds) Temperate climates Maple trees produce maple syrup
Pine Long, thin needles in clusters Pinecones Northern Hemisphere Pines are evergreen trees
Birch Broad, triangular leaves Catkins Cool climates Birch bark is often used for paper or canoes
  1. Table: Forest Animals and Plants
Animal/Plant Type Habitat (in the forest) Interesting Fact
Squirrel Animal (Mammal) Trees, nests made from leaves They have a great memory for finding nuts
Deer Animal (Mammal) Forest edge, grassy areas Some male deer grow antlers each year
Fern Plant Shaded areas under trees They reproduce via spores, not seeds
Blue Jay Animal (Bird) Tree branches, tree cavities They mimic the calls of hawks
Mushroom Plant On the ground or on trees Some mushrooms glow in the dark
  1. Reflection Questions for Discussion
  • What are some ways forests provide benefits to humans and the environment?
  • How do different types of trees contribute to the richness of a forest?
  • Why is it important to protect our forests and other ecosystems?
  • Describe your favorite part of creating the forest diorama and why it is important to you.


These materials should be used throughout the lesson plan. The introductory text can be used during the teacher-led presentation. The worksheet and table can be handed out to students as reference materials during the activities. The reflection questions should be used to facilitate the plenary discussion at the end of the lesson.


45 Minutes10-11 YearsFocus: Creative Exercises

Topic: Probability

Learning Objectives:

  • Students can identify basic probability terms such as outcome, event, equally likely, sample space, and probability.
  • Students understand how to calculate the probability of simple events.
  • Students can interpret probability and appreciate the presence of probability in daily life events.
  • Students can analyze and interpret probability in the context of dice, coin, and card games.
  • Students can solve simple problems involving probability.
  • Students develop collaboration and communication skills by working in groups.


Phase Time Content Form of action
Introduction 5 min Teacher presents the concept of probability and its importance in daily life Teacher's presentation
Explanation 5 min Introduction of basic terms: outcome, event, sample space, equally likely, and probability Teacher's presentation
Activity 10 min Dice probability game: throw a dice, record the result, and discuss probabilities for each face Students in pairs
Activity 10 min Coin probability game: flip a coin, record the result, and discuss probabilities for heads & tails Students in pairs
Activity 10 min Card probability game: deal a card, record the result, and discuss probabilities for each suit and face value Students in pairs
Consolidation 5 min Review and summarize main concepts learned during the lesson; students share their insights from the games Plenary discussion


  • Students will write a journal entry about a situation in their lives where they encountered probability (e.g., decision making, a game, or a news article).
  • Students will attempt to solve five simple probability problems (dice, coin, or cards).


The planned lesson serves as an introduction to the teaching sequence "Probability and Statistics," in which students will further explore the concepts of conditional probability, mutually exclusive events, complementary events, independent and dependent events, and probability distributions. The understanding of probability forms a solid base for students as they advance in mathematical concepts, enabling them to analyze and interpret data more effectively.

Probability Lesson Materials

1. Definitions Worksheet

Provide definitions for the following terms:

  1. Outcome:
  2. Event:
  3. Equally likely:
  4. Sample space:
  5. Probability:

2. Dice Probability Worksheet

Work with a partner to roll a standard six-sided die 30 times and record the results below.

Roll Result Roll Result Roll Result
1 11 21
2 12 22
3 13 23
4 14 24
5 15 25
6 16 26
7 17 27
8 18 28
9 19 29
10 20 30

Calculate the probability of each face:

  • Probability of 1: _
  • Probability of 2: _
  • Probability of 3: _
  • Probability of 4: _
  • Probability of 5: _
  • Probability of 6: _

3. Coin Probability Worksheet

Work with a partner to flip a coin 30 times and record the results below.

Flip Result Flip Result
1 16
2 17
3 18
4 19
5 20
6 21
7 22
8 23
9 24
10 25
11 26
12 27
13 28
14 29
15 30

Calculate the probability of each outcome:

  • Probability of Heads: _
  • Probability of Tails: _

4. Simple Probability Problems (Homework)

Solve the following probability problems:

  1. What is the probability of rolling an even number on a standard six-sided die?

    • Answer: 1/2
  2. What is the probability of flipping a coin and getting heads twice in a row?

    • Answer: 1/4
  3. What is the probability of drawing a red card from a standard deck of playing cards?

    • Answer: 1/2
  4. If you draw one card from a standard deck of playing cards, what is the probability that it will be either a Queen, King, or Ace?

    • Answer: 3/13
  5. In a bag containing 4 red marbles, 3 blue marbles, and 2 green marbles, what is the probability of drawing a green marble?

    • Answer: 2/9

Environmental Science - Waste Management and Recycling

120 Minutes14-15 YearsFocus: Presentations

Topic of the lesson: Environmental Science - Waste Management and Recycling

Learning Objectives:

  • The students know the terms waste management, recycling, waste prevention, and landfill, and can explain them using examples.
  • The students understand the environmental impacts of improper waste disposal and the benefits of recycling.
  • The students can analyze and interpret graphs and diagrams related to waste production and recycling rates.
  • The students are able to relate the concept of recycling to sustainability and conserving resources.
  • The students strengthen their awareness for sustainable action and waste reduction.


Phase Time Content Form of action
Introduction 10 min Brief overview of waste management, recycling, and their importance In plenary by teacher-student discussion
Elaboration 60 min Working out the concepts of: waste prevention, recycling, landfill, waste-to-energy, composting, and their environmental impacts. Analyzing graphs and diagrams related to waste production and recycling rates. Group carousel activity with rotating stations
Presentation 40 min Each group prepares a short presentation on the waste management and recycling methods they have learned, explaining the environmental impacts and benefits of each. Group presentations
Reflection 10 min Discussing the takeaways from the presentations, identifying sustainable actions to reduce waste and its environmental impacts In plenary by teacher-student discussion


  • Revising the contents discussed in the lesson, researching and noting down examples of sustainable waste management initiatives in their local area.


The planned lesson serves as an introduction to the teaching unit "Environmental Science." By focusing on waste management and recycling, students develop an understanding of how proper waste disposal and recycling play a crucial role in protecting the environment. In the following lessons, they will explore other topics related to environmental conservation such as renewable energy, pollution reduction, and ecosystem preservation.

Lesson Materials: Waste Management and Recycling

A brief text introducing the basic concepts of waste management, recycling, and their importance. Include an infographic or image that illustrates the process of recycling.

Example text:
Waste management is the process of collecting, transporting, processing, and disposing of waste materials. Recycling is a method of waste management that involves converting waste materials into new products to conserve resources, reduce pollution, and protect ecosystems. The importance of proper waste management and recycling is crucial for a sustainable future.

Group Carousel Activity Materials:

  1. Waste Prevention:

    • Information text about waste prevention methods and benefits.
    • Examples of waste prevention.
  2. Recycling:

    • Information text about different recycling methods, materials suitable for recycling, and the recycling process.
    • Examples of recycling processes or facilities.
  3. Landfill:

    • Information text about landfill waste disposal, including its environmental impacts and landfill management techniques.
    • Examples of sustainable landfill management techniques.
  4. Waste-to-Energy:

    • Information text about waste-to-energy methods and their environmental implications.
    • Case study of a waste-to-energy facility.
  5. Composting:

    • Information text about the process of composting and its benefits.
    • Examples of composting techniques.

Worksheet for Analyzing Graphs and Diagrams:

  • A worksheet with 3 graphs or diagrams related to waste production, recycling rates, or environmental impacts that students must analyze and answer questions about.
  • Include follow-up questions to deepen understanding and encourage discussion.

Example questions:

  1. What trend can you observe in this graph about waste production over the past decade?
  2. Compare and contrast the recycling rates for plastic, paper, and glass.
  3. What conclusions can you draw from this diagram about the environmental impact of landfill waste disposal?

Group Presentation Guidelines:

  • A sheet with instructions and an outline for the group presentations on waste management and recycling methods.
  • Provide a list of points to cover in their presentation, such as environmental impacts, benefits, and sustainability.

Reflection Questions:

  • Discussion questions to wrap up the lesson and encourage the students to reflect on what they have learned
  • Can be printed out or presented on a slide

Example questions:

  1. What waste management method do you believe has the most potential for sustainability and why?
  2. How can individuals contribute to reducing waste and improving recycling practices?
  3. What are the potential environmental consequences of improper waste disposal?


  • List of concepts to review for homework, including finding examples of sustainable waste management initiatives in their local area.


  1. Waste prevention:

    • Examples: reusable bags, packaging-free stores, reducing food waste
  2. Recycling:

    • Examples: single-stream recycling facility, recycling electronics (e.g., mobile phones)
  3. Landfill management techniques:

    • Examples: landfill gas extraction, leachate management, landfill capping
  4. Waste-to-energy facility:

    • Case study: a waste-to-energy plant using incineration, capturing the energy generated to produce electricity for nearby households
  5. Composting techniques:

    • Examples: backyard composting, vermicomposting (using worms), community composting programs

Worksheet - Graph analysis

  1. (Example) Waste production has increased significantly over the past decade.
  2. (Example) Recycling rates for paper are generally higher than for plastic, with glass somewhere in between; this could be due to recycling infrastructure or ease of processing each material.
  3. (Example) The environmental impact of landfill waste disposal can include methane emissions, groundwater pollution, and habitat loss.